View Notes - LECTURE 9.pdf from PHYSIOLOGY 1321 at Texas A&M University, Kingsville. This paper. 0000004226 00000 n Heat pumps operate as a heat engine in reverse, as they do work from an input of electricity to push heat from a cold place to a warm place. Fig.3: A heat engine that violates the Kelvin‐Planck statement of the second law cannot be built. Heat and work Two primary classes of thermodynamic cycles are power cycles and heat pump cycles. As for the refrigeration cycle, the energy balance reads Wcycle = Qout – Qin (Eq. Experiment: Thermodynamics ... A refrigerator is essentially a heat pump and removes heat from one location at a lower temperature, the heat source, and transfers it to another location, the heat sink, at a higher temperature. heat transfer is a directional process, and heat will only be transferred from high temperature to low temperature. Refrigeration Lab Report. LECTURE 9 HEAT ENGINES SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 2 … 3. 12.10 Refrigerators and heat pumps 12.11 Second law of thermodynamics 12.12 Reversible and irreversible processes 12.1 3 Carnot engine Summary Points to ponder Exercises 304 PHYSICS Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the concepts of heat and temperature and the inter -conversion of heat and other for ms of energy. Exp 8 Refrigerant Heat Pump. Heat Pump Cycle As before, Wcycle is the net energy transfer by work to the system per cycle, usually provided in the form of electricity. �F��i@Tl� W�� endstream endobj 171 0 obj 918 endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 131 0 R /Resources 141 0 R /Contents 147 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 141 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC ] /Font << /TT2 143 0 R /TT4 142 0 R /TT6 149 0 R /TT7 148 0 R /TT9 153 0 R /TT11 154 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 166 0 R /Im2 167 0 R /Im3 168 0 R /Im4 169 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 161 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 145 0 R >> >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 333 278 0 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 722 722 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 0 722 611 833 722 778 667 778 722 667 611 722 667 944 667 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 556 611 556 333 611 611 278 0 556 278 889 611 611 611 611 389 556 333 611 556 778 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /OIOAEA+Arial,Bold /FontDescriptor 144 0 R >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 148 /Widths [ 278 0 355 0 0 0 667 191 333 333 0 584 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 278 278 0 584 0 556 1015 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 0 667 556 833 722 778 667 778 722 667 611 722 667 944 667 667 0 278 0 278 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 222 333 333 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /OIOAAP+Arial /FontDescriptor 146 0 R >> endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 718 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2034 1010 ] /FontName /OIOAEA+Arial,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 144 /FontFile2 157 0 R >> endobj 145 0 obj [ /ICCBased 160 0 R ] endobj 146 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 718 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2028 1006 ] /FontName /OIOAAP+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 515 /FontFile2 158 0 R >> endobj 147 0 obj << /Length 1574 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream work (mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc.) This cycle was first proposed for heating applications in 1852by Kelvin, who referred tohis device as a ’heat multiplier’ [2]. YdA�q�:���&c \���W +���~�ܢ�EF!�ܨM�h\�NW�ͷ�����CChV\{U�O�8-��=w4�m� It … Download Full PDF Package. 331 0 obj <> endobj • Define a reversed heat engine. Heat pump installers should consult these parts for specific best practice advice. Fig. is higher quality energy than heat. ��;طwL�U!k���� Aerothermodynamics Thermodynamics Laboratory Report Heat Pump Performance Analysis Aerospace Engineering Year 2 Contents. Repeating the arguments for Q 2 = Q2 we find that the second law requires W ≤ W and hence Q 2/W ≥ Q 2/W. Heat pumps are devices that operate in a cycle similar to the vapor-compression refrigerator cycle illustrated in Figure 1. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A heat pump is a mechanical system that allows for the transmission of heat from one location (the "source") at a lower temperature to another location (the "sink" or "heat sink") at a higher temperature. namely, the use of heat pumps and air conditioners, which are really just engines that use work to push air around. Irreversible heat pumps Exchanging X and C we may consider the case of irreversible heat pumps. THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. In this diagram a heat pump with a condensation temperature of 80 °C and an evaporation temperature of 40 °C is taken as an example. h��mO9���?�N�~_�T!R �Q���(����,J�w��ߌ�v�K�TmU�;�����xf���e%Be�QC���x��jN�P"$-�>��Ȱ�D���Ԇ��2bXJDJIm�2�� �rX'b��$\P�*�S� �)ʤD2�=�U0P�fD)�6j�b�m2�c81Ta��(FB��1ؕ���(�BC���l�ի���IN���������M��0�zv[M��4/�����w�%��q5�a�NWBg�!��p�@���N������"��L�j�w��LJ"9? The difference between p 1 and p 2.1. ?�s00�{Ȇ`ͦ &æ��W#�>#�� C��k������*���|��-���q��>�Z��Z��X�o�o���3GXu��?ѥ�_�aW�ІN���1�ں'a�� p,t�z��sv��k/���S�o�@�f_OB��� ��S�ҹP6[�5/:�����ߗO������p�"����,r�D{�C=Q),�8�8Ӑ��* ���f��v��� ���I����\�!�c�x��l&���. A refrigerator or heat pump is a device used for cooling things. Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics [IAW 23-31 (see IAW for detailed VWB&S references); VN Chapters 2, 3, 4] 1.A.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles; Work and Efficiency As motivation for the development of the second law, we examine two types of processes that concern interactions between heat and work. There will be a quantity of heat rejected at the higher temperature and a quantity of heat absorbed at the lower temperature. The first of these represents the conversion of work into heat. According to the second law, heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter one. ��L`{��;P�e�x�"F��� �J�\�4x�<8�4�2��J�i0e`G���QN�L4��A�f'��b �S4�^1?���xA�"�͓�k�� �B>3^$�(߷@��s��\�= )+�Y�p�����-���������~� 0000081360 00000 n h�b```c``z����0��A��X��,��^�4E�KÞ�Pi�D�wpL�n'8喌fnI�CyGGG3�d���@ ����7�f`���2T���P��d�������T���y�>��1�4x000^Z�.���A&��C��C���P�H2p>]��޹ ���: �����H31�����88!� O,:� ˜˚˘CHAPTER ˜˜ | Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Example ˚˚.˝ The Efficiency of an Engine An engine transfers 2.00 3 103 J of energy from a hot reservoir during a cycle and transfers 1.50 3 103 J as exhaust to a cold reservoir. 3.4 First law of thermodynamics – internal energy The first law of thermodynamics expresses that energy is conserved, when all forms of energy, including heat, are taken into account. 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